Discussion based on the functional classification of joints

Structural classification of joints - based on the material bindingthe bones together

3. Synovial joints (Most common classifications of joints)

A joint, also called an articulation, is any place where adjacent bones or bone and cartilage come together (articulate with each other) to form a connection. Joints are classified both structurally and functionally. Structural classifications of joints take into account whether the adjacent bones are strongly anchored to each other by fibrous connective tissue or cartilage, or whether the adjacent bones articulate with each other within a fluid-filled space called a joint cavity. Functional classifications describe the degree of movement available between the bones, ranging from immobile, to slightly mobile, to freely moveable joints. The amount of movement available at a particular joint of the body is related to the functional requirements for that joint. Thus immobile or slightly moveable joints serve to protect internal organs, give stability to the body, and allow for limited body movement. In contrast, freely moveable joints allow for much more extensive movements of the body and limbs.

Functional classification of joints - based on the amount of movementallowed at the joint

Functional Classification of Joints

Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of mobility exhibited by the joint. A synarthrosis is an immobile or nearly immobile joint. An example is the manubriosternal joint or the joints between the skull bones surrounding the brain. An amphiarthrosis is a slightly moveable joint, such as the pubic symphysis or an intervertebral cartilaginous joint. A diarthrosis is a freely moveable joint. These are subdivided into three categories. A uniaxial diarthrosis allows movement within a single anatomical plane or axis of motion. The elbow joint is an example. A biaxial diarthrosis, such as the metacarpophalangeal joint, allows for movement along two planes or axes. The hip and shoulder joints are examples of a multiaxial diarthrosis. These allow movements along three planes or axes.

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The structural classification of joints is based on whether the articulating surfaces of the adjacent bones are directly connected by fibrous connective tissue or cartilage, or whether the articulating surfaces contact each other within a fluid-filled joint cavity. These differences serve to divide the joints of the body into three structural classifications. A fibrous joint is where the adjacent bones are united by fibrous connective tissue. At a cartilaginous joint, the bones are joined by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage. At a synovial joint, the articulating surfaces of the bones are not directly connected, but instead come into contact with each other within a joint cavity that is filled with a lubricating fluid. Synovial joints allow for free movement between the bones and are the most common joints of the body.

Structural classification of Joints


The functional classification of joints is determined by the amount of mobility found between the adjacent bones. Joints are thus functionally classified as a synarthrosis or immobile joint, an amphiarthrosis or slightly moveable joint, or as a diarthrosis, which is a freely moveable joint (arthroun = “to fasten by a joint”). Depending on their location, fibrous joints may be functionally classified as a synarthrosis (immobile joint) or an amphiarthrosis (slightly mobile joint). Cartilaginous joints are also functionally classified as either a synarthrosis or an amphiarthrosis joint. All synovial joints are functionally classified as a diarthrosis joint.These are the different classification of joints but if you want to learn one or write on in exam then the most important one is structural classification.Joints of human beings can be classified on different bases. Each base divides joints into different categories. There are three types of classifications of joints; Structural classification, Functional classification, and Regional classification. Lets have a look at all of these.In the classification of joints, which of the following is true?

In cartilaginous joints, a joint cavity is present.

Immovable joints are called amphiarthroses.

Synarthrotic joints are slightly movable.

All synovial joints are freely movable.The three main groupings of joints are fibrous, cartilagenous and synovial. Fibrous joints are held together by only a ligament. Examples are where the teeth are held to their bony sockets. Cartilagenous joints occur where the connection between the articulating bones is made up of cartilage – as between vertebrae in the spine. Synovial joints are by far the most common classification of joint within the human body. They are highly moveable and all have a synovial capsule (collagenous structure) surrounding the entire joint, a synovial membrane (the inner layer of the capsule) which secretes synovial fluid (a lubricating liquid) and cartilage known as hyaline cartilage which pads the ends of the articulating bones. There are 6 types of synovial joints which are classified by the shape of the joint and the movement available. They are: hinge, pivot, ball and socket, saddle, condyloid and gliding.The functional classification of joints is determined by the amount of mobility found between the adjacent bones. Joints are thus functionally classified as a synarthrosis or immobile joint, an amphiarthrosis or slightly moveable joint, or as a diarthrosis, which is a freely moveable joint (arthroun = “to fasten by a joint”). Depending on their location, fibrous joints may be functionally classified as a synarthrosis (immobile joint) or an amphiarthrosis (slightly mobile joint). Cartilaginous joints are also functionally classified as either a synarthrosis or an amphiarthrosis joint. All synovial joints are functionally classified as a diarthrosis joint.By the end of this section, you will be able to:* Distinguish between the functional and structural classifications for joints* Describe the three functional types of joints and give an example of each* List the three types of diarthrodial jointsSynovial (diarthrosis): Synovial joints are by far the most common classification of joint within the human body. They are highly moveable and all have a synovial capsule (collagenous structure) surrounding the entire joint, a synovial membrane (the inner layer of the capsule) which secretes synovial fluid (a lubricating liquid) and cartilage known as hyaline cartilage which pads the ends of the articulating bones. There are 6 types of synovial joints which are classified by the shape of the joint and the movement available.